P0016 Crankshaft/Camshaft timing misalignment-Bank 1 sensor 1

P0016 Crankshaft/Camshaft timing misalignment-Bank 1 sensor 1For proper engine control and combustion stability the camshaft and crankshaft positions must be aligned and know such that fuel injection and sprak timing can be introduced at the inteded piston and intake/exhaust valve positions.
During vehicle manufacturing, at end of line, or if a cam/crank relearn is performed, the system learns the differnce between the camshaft and crankshaft postion in terms of engine degrees and stores it in the EEPROM.

P0016

During drive cycles, the actual cam/crank position is monitored and compared to the stored value in the EEFROM. If the PCM detect a defference that exceeds a calibrated threshold, a fault is detected. When Monitored P0016 code with the engine running between approximately 500-6000 rpm, battery voltage above 11.0 volts, engine coolant temperature above 10°C (50°F), engine oil temperature above 10°C (50°F), after the camshaft has been commanded to lock pin long enough that lock pin should be attained (more than approximately three seconds).
Set Conditions P0016 code, the difference between the Bank 1 exhaust camshaft position and the crankshaft postion is more than 10.0 degrees.

Default actions:
  • The MIL light will illuminate
  • If the vehicle is equipped with the stop/start feature, the system will be disabled when this DTC is active.

Possible causes P0016 code:
  • Incorrect engine oil viscosity or oil filter.
  • Engine oil aerated or contaminated.
  • Insufficient oil pressure due to a mechanical failure in the oiling system.
  • Erratic Cam position sensor signal.
  • Erratic Crankshaft position sensor signal.
  • Camshaft 1/2 oil control valve faulty or intermittently binding/sticking spool valve.
  • Crankshaft position tone wheel/pulse ring.
  • Camshaft tone wheel misaligned.
  • Camshaft 1/2 phaser.
  • Timing sprocket alignment.
  • Camshaft position sensor 1.
  • Crankshaft position sensor.
  • Powertraint Control Module (PCM).

Diagnostic test P0016 code

Step 1. Check for an active DTC
Diagnose and repair any VVT solenoid circuit open or slow response DTC before continuing with this test. With the scan tool, read DTC and record on the repair order. With the scan tool, record the related freeze frame data. Using the recorded data along with the monitored and set conditions above, operate the vehicle in the conditions that set the DTC.

Is the DTC active or pending P0016 code ?

Yes, go to step 2.
No, perform the PCM intermittent condition.

Step 2. Engine oil/engine mechanical

Note : The following items shoulds be checked before continuing with this procedure. Failure to do so may lead to misdiagnosis :
  • Engine mechanical tolerances out of specification.
  • Engine oil pressure out of specification.
  • Low engine oil level.
  • Incorrect engine oil filter (does not meet OEM specifications).
  • Deteriorated or dirty oil.
  • Contaminated engine oil.
  • Incorrect engine oil viscosity.
  • Aerated engine oil.
If any the above conditions are found, repair as neccesary.

Where any of the above conditions present ?

Yes, reapir the engine oiling or mechanical condition (improper oil drain back, oil sludge, damaged oil pump, pick-upctube or seal, etc). Perform the Powertrain verification test.
No, go to step 3.

Step 3. Check the engine oil pressure and engine oil mechanical condition
Install the applicable adaptor to the oil filter cap and install an oil pressure gauge to the adaptor. If the adaptor is not available, monitor the oil pressure reading with the scan tool. Start the engine and allow to idle. Monitor the engine oil pressure reading on the gauge or scan tool. If the oil pressure is below 14 psi or oscillating excessively, it can cause a delay in cam phaser movement sufficient enough to set a slow response DTC.

Is the oil pressure reading stable and above 14 psi ?

Yes, go to step 4.
No, repair the engine oiling or mechanical condition (improper oil drain back, oil sludge, damaged oil pump, pick-up tube or seal, etc). Perform the Powertrain verification test.

Step 4. Verify an active condition by checking the Cam phaser position
If Cam phaser or Oil Control Valve is stuck, there may also be a Crankshaft/Camshaft timing misalignment and/or Multiple cylinder misfire DTC present.

Is the difference between the actual value and the desired value readings more than 6.0 degrees at idle or is the actual value lagging behind or overshooting the desired value ?

Yes, the difference is greater than 6.0 degrees at idle, go to step 5.
Yes, the actual reading is lagging or overshooting when changing the engine speed indicating a binding or sticking, go to step 6.

No, go to step 11.

Step 5. Determine if the Cam phaser issue is electrical or mechanical
While the engine is at idle, disconnect the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 harness connector. The exhaust Cam 1 actual position value should change to lock pin with the solenoid disconnected. The intake Cam position should be at approximately 117.0 degrees at lock pin.

Did the exhaust Cam 1 actual value change to lock pin position with the solenoid unplugged ?

Yes, check the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 control circuit for a short to voltage. If the circuit is not short to voltage, replace the Powertrain Control Module (PCM).

No, go to step 6.

Step 6. Check the Camshaft 1/2 oil control valve operation
Turn the ignition off, remove the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2. Inspect the spring loaded spool valve on the Oil Control Valve. The spring loaded spool valve should be flush with the surface of the Oil Control Valve when at the rest.

Push and release the spring loaded spool valve againts the return spring with a small punch.

Was the spring loaded spool valve flush and able to move freely without dragging or sticking ?

Yes, go to step 7.
No, replace the Camshaft 1/2 Oil Control Valve.

Step 7. Check the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 operation
Turn the ignition off, with the solenoid still removed, reconnect the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 harness connector. Turn the ignition on, with the scan tool, actuate the VVT solenoid 1/2 on and off several times.

Does the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 move freely without binding or sticking during actuation ?

Yes, go to step 8.
No, replace VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2. Perform the Powertrain verification test.

Step 8. Verify that the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 is able to move the phaser
Exchange the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2 with the VVT exhaust solenoid 2/2. The intake and exhaust solenoid should not be interchanged. Reconnect the solenoid harness connectors, turn the ignition on, with the scan tool erase DTC in the PCM. Test drive the vehicle under the conditions in which the fault was set. With the scan tool, read DTC.

Did the DTC move with the solenoid or stay with the original Camshaft ?

Moved with the solenoid, replace the VVT exhaust solenoid 1/2. Perform the Powertrain verification test.

Stayed with the original Camshaft, go to step 9.

Step 9. Check the exhaust Camshaft 1/2 tone wheel
Turn the ignition off, check the alignment of the CMP sensor tone wheel in accordance  with the service information.

Is the CMP sensor tone wheel aligned correctly ?

Yes, go to step 10.
No, replace the exhaust camshaft assembly.

Step 10. Check the engine timing alignment
Verify proper alignment of the timing chain and gears in accordance with the service information.

Is the timing alignment correct ?

Yes, replace the Cam phaser assembly.

No, correct the valve timing alignment to specification.

Step 11. Check the CMP sensor for an irregular signal
Turn the ignition off, using a lab scope and a back probing tool, back probe the (K44) CMP sensor signal 1/1 circuit at the CMP sensor 1 harness connector.
Start the engine, wiggle the related wire harness and lightly tap on the CMP sensor while monitoring the lab scope screen.

Did the CMP sensor 1/1 signal appear irregular or missing any high/low transitions ?

Yes, go to step 12.
No, go to step 13.

Step 12. Check the CMP sensor circuit wiring and connectors
Turn the ignition off, using the wiring diagram as a guide, inspect the wiring and connectors between the CMP sensor 1 and the Powertraint Control Module (PCM).

Were any problems found ?

Yes, perform the appropriate repair. Perform the Powertrain verification test.
No, replace the CMP sensor.

Step 13. Check the CKP sensor for an irregular signal
Turn the ignition off, using lab scope and a back probing tool, back probe the CKP signal circuit at the CKP sensor harness connectors.
Start the engine, wiggle the related wire harness and lightly tap on the CKP sensor while monitoring the lab scope screen.

Did the CKP sensor signal appear irregular or missing any high/low transitions ?

Yes, go to step 16.
No, go to step 14.

Step 14. Check the CKP sensor circuit wiring or connectors
Using the wiring diagram as a guide, inspect the wiring and connector between the CKP sensor and the PCM.

Were any problems found ?

Yes, perform the appropriate repair.
No, go to step 15.

Step 15. Check the Crankshaft tone wheel/pulse ring
Turn the ignition off, remove the CKP sensor, inspect the CKP sensor mounting area, and tone wheel/pulse ring for any condition that would result in an incorrect signal, such as damage, evidence of foreign material or excessive movement.

Were any problems found ?

Yes, perform the appropriate repair.
No, replace the CKP sensor.

Step 16. Check related PCM and component connections

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